Location and characteristics
The Norrström drainage basin (22 000 km²) comprises the major part of the Swedish water management district Northern Baltic Proper. For the case study economic and environmental issues will be considered at the scale of the Baltic Sea and local scale, including environmental and physical interactions between the two scales.
The basin is part of the fertile Swedish belt, characterised by extensive agriculture, and includes the Swedish capital Stockholm. An unresolved and well recognised problem for the coastal environment and its sustainable development is the human-driven eutrophication and associated hypoxia with recurring harmful algae blooms, caused by the combined nutrient emissions from households, agriculture, and industry. These impacts occur on the local/regional scale of the Swedish Norrström case and the macro-regional/cross-boundary scale of the whole-Baltic case.
Sustainable development solutions must consider the agricultural, urban and industrial activities in the hinterland, the high and increasing population density, tourism development in the coastal zone, ongoing and future climate change, and their combined effects on the nutrient loads transported to the coast. The overarching problem, and possibilities for addressing the problem are recognized in strategic planning and development plans at the local and regional scale.
How should rural, urban and coastal sectors, actors and activities interact to ensure sustainable development with no eutrophication or pollution of coastal and marine waters?
- To connect and support policies and strategies for sustainable rural, urban and coastal development
- To create an integrated approach to mitigation of coastal-marine eutrophication and pollution
Eutrophication and pollution of inland as well as coastal and marine waters is a well-known, essential, but yet unresolved problem that needs to be handled and solved towards achieving a sustainable regional development. Integrated understanding, and synergistic, innovative and efficient solution strategies are jointly sought and found for this overarching environmental problem - across the rural, urban and coastal sectors, and accounting for and including climate, land-use and other environmental and socio-economic changes in the region.
Coastal pressures and interactions in the cross-scale Norrstrom-Baltic Sea case
1. Green Growth sector
2. Blue Growth sector
4. ICT sector
Swedish MAL coordination
Prof. Georgia Destouni (email:
Local partners of the Norrström/Baltic MAL
- SEI: Stiftelsen The Stockholm Environment Institute (SE)
- LUKE: Luonnonvarakeskus (FI)
- NIRAS: Niras Sweden AB (SE)
- CRAB: Campus Roslagen AB (SE)
- GLOB: Global Utmaning (SE)